Reports & Working Papers


This working paper from the National Scientific Council on the Developing Childdefines the concept of toxic stress—what happens when children experience severe, prolonged adversity without adult support. This working paper from the National Scientific Council on the Developing Childexplains how exposure to toxins before birth or early in life can have a devastating and lifelong effect on the developing architecture of the brain. As Qualcomm laid bare in a salty Google subtweet last week, it would stand to lose out if major companies like Oppo were to take on SoC design themselves. Oppo is the fourth largest smartphone maker in the world by shipments, according to IDC, and given it shares a supply chain and ownership with Vivo, Realme and OnePlus, Oppo-developed chips could quickly find their way into phones from multiple brands.

“No enforced technology transfer would do more to address equity than what’s already lined up,” said Thomas Cueni, director of the International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers and Associations, an industry lobby group in Geneva. Treatment access advocates staged a global campaign demanding that the drug makers license low-cost producers or release the rights to their intellectual property to allow someone to fill the gap. “What we’ve learned through this pandemic is that it really does matter where the doses are coming off the production line,” said Andrea Taylor, who tracks vaccine production for the Duke Global Health Innovation Center. Internet use is almost universal in industrialized countries, and is growing rapidly in the developing world as well.

China is a growing influence on other developing economies through trade, investment, and ideas. The Center on the Developing Child’s diverse activities align around building an R&D platformfor science-based innovation, and transforming the policy and practice landscape that supports and even demands change. We do this because society pays a huge price when children do not reach their potential, because half a century of policies and programs have not produced breakthrough outcomes, and because dramatic advances in science are ready to be used to achieve a promising future for every child.

Urban China

Two people who spoke to the newspaper said that the plan was to release custom SoCs in 2023 or 2024 “depending on the speed of development.” Oppo reportedly wants to use TSMC’s advanced 3nm process technology for the chips. A second category could include countries that rely instead on services-led growth, with all the promise of healthy middle-class consumption. Here, India and Indonesia are possible candidates; Kenya might be a frontier market worth investigating. And a third group could include commodity exporters, such as Brazil, Russia and South Africa. These have provided dismal returns over the past decade and shrunk as a proportion of emerging-market indices.

Is well developed?

: large, advanced, or complete : fully developed well-developed muscles She has a well-developed sense of humor.

The nature of the Bank’s activities in China has evolved over time as China’s needs and level of development have changed. In the early years, the World Bank brought international experience to help design economic reform strategies, improve project management, and address key bottlenecks to growth. The Center employs a knowledge translation process that helps present key findings about the science of early childhood in clear, accurate, and uniform ways, equipping change agents to drive science-based innovation. Learn more about communicating the science.Science-based innovation does not take place in isolation. Broader forces such as policy, the economy, and public opinion can help or hinder the ability of innovators to create, test, and spread new ideas.

The World Bank provides free and open access to a comprehensive set of development data in countries around the globe, including China. China needs to foster new drivers of growth to address productivity challenges, intensify reforms and promote greater innovation. The Hunan Subnational Governance and Rural Public Service Delivery Program for Results, approved in February 2021, assists the province in delivering more equitable and efficient public services in rural areas. The financing supports measures to strengthen local debt management and provide results-oriented transfers aimed at reducing disparities in the quality of basic education in rural areas. It would also introduce greater accountability by making budget information more transparent and accessible to citizens. Advancing market and fiscal reforms by improving the environment for competition and private sector development; and achieving more efficient and sustainable subnational fiscal management and infrastructure financing.

The First Known Use Of Developing Was

It will be important going forward that poverty alleviation efforts increasingly shift to address the vulnerabilities faced by the large number of people still considered poor by the standards of middle-income countries, including those living in urban areas. The Western pharmaceutical industry, and some supply chain and health experts, says— the fastest route to closing the Covid vaccine gap is to focus on a more equitable distribution of vaccines made by the existing players. Instead of sharing its recipe, Moderna announced earlier this month that it would spend up to $500 million to build its own vaccine plant in Africa. (The company did not specify which of the 54 countries it planned to build in or how long it would take.) And BioNTech, the inventor of Pfizer’s mRNA process, has announced plans to build plants in Africa in the next four years. In fact, when BioNTech was ready to start production of its vaccine, it went not to a vaccine maker but to a cancer drug plant in Germany.

What is a meaning of the word develop?

transitive verb. 1a : to set forth or make clear by degrees or in detail : expound develop a thesis. b : to make visible or manifest developed the scene in her mind. c dyeing : to treat with an agent to cause the appearance of color.

Dr. Yadav estimated it would take one of the producers in South Africa or Brazil up to 18 months to have an mRNA vaccine ready to go in arms, with a recipe-share. There would also need to be a parallel process of boosting the capacity of national regulatory agencies which will be critical to maintaining quality. Gennova received seed funding from the government of India, and it plans to use internal resources, and a potential partnership it is negotiating with a large multilateral agency, to take its vaccine forward, Dr. Singh said. Use the adjective developing to describe a country that’s relatively poor and has a lower standard of living than most other countries in the world.

Building The Brains air Traffic Control System: How Early Experiences Shape The Development Of Executive Function

The challenge going forward is to find new drivers of growth while addressing the social and environmental legacies of China’s previous development path. We face big challenges to help the world’s poorest people and ensure that everyone sees benefits from economic growth. Data and research help us understand these challenges and set priorities, share knowledge of what works, and measure progress. Bio-Manguinhos, the immunobiology arm of a venerated Brazilian public health research organization, will soon start clinical trials of an RNA-based Covid vaccine, said Sotiris Missailidis, deputy director of technology development for the research center.

  • The nature of the Bank’s activities in China has evolved over time as China’s needs and level of development have changed.
  • By signing up, you agree to our Privacy Notice and European users agree to the data transfer policy.
  • It already produces Covid vaccines for Oxford-AstraZeneca and Novavax, as well as other vaccines for the W.H.O. and Unicef, and is investing in mRNA production.

This working paper from the National Forum on Early Childhood Policy and Programs summarizes evaluations of family self-sufficiency programs to show that policies can achieve both positive economic benefits for parents and positive educational effects for their children. This working paper from the National Scientific Council on the Developing Childexplains why young children who experience severe deprivation or neglect can experience a range of negative consequences. This retrospective report describes the history of how the National Scientific Council on the Developing Childcame to be, what its impact has been, how its members work, and why the Council has made a difference.

Despite mounting pressure, the chief executives of Moderna and Pfizer have declined to license their mRNA technology in developing countries, arguing it makes no sense to do so. They say that the process is too complex, that it would be too time- and labor- intensive to establish facilities that could do it, and that they cannot spare the staff because of the urgent need to maximize production at their own network of facilities. There’s not a specific standard for calling a country developing, but there are some societies that most of the world agrees are less industrialized than most. Developing countries generally have poorer people and a less vibrant economy than more developed countries. Some countries object to being called developing, since it implies that all countries want to become “developed,” or more Western in their economy and government, which is not necessarily true.

The Renewable Energy and Battery Storage Promotion Project, approved in June 2019, aims to increase the integration and utilization of renewable energy by deploying battery storage systems at scale in China. The project will help China accelerate the ongoing clean energy transition and contribute to the country’s emission reduction targets. The project is being implemented by Hua Xia Bank which has committed co-financing of at least $450 million. Parallel technical assistance, financed by the Global Environmental Facility and the Energy Sector Management Assistance Program , will help improve the policy and regulatory framework for green energy technologies, thereby reducing risks and encouraging private investment. The Hubei Smart and Sustainable Agriculture Project, approved in May 2020, promotes environmentally sustainable and climate-smart agriculture and improves agricultural food quality and safety in one of China’s leading agricultural producers.

The fortunes of some economies, such as Brazil and Russia, are tied to the vagaries of commodities markets; those of East and South-East Asia, by contrast, are powered by manufacturing. The Jiangxi Eco-industrial Parks Project, approved in June 2020, will strengthen the province’s institutional and regulatory framework for eco-industrial parks, bringing them in line with international standards and helping to reduce the country’s pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. The project will generate important lessons that could help make a tangible impact on China’s and thus the world’s environmental footprint. World Bank lending will decline over the CPF period and focus on supporting China in contributing to global public goods. As it does so, the Bank stands ready to provide more technical assistance and policy advice, as well as reimbursable advisory services , and the International Finance Corporation will engage in China’s private sector, especially in investments in global public goods.

Other drug companies would like to license one of the existing mRNA vaccines — pay a fee to receive the formulation and instructions, then share a royalty on each dose they sell — and start making it as quickly as possible. It already produces Covid vaccines for Oxford-AstraZeneca and Novavax, as well as other vaccines for the W.H.O. and Unicef, and is investing in mRNA production. A few large pharmaceutical producers in developing countries have these funds at hand; others would need loans or investors. The U.S. International Development Finance Corporation and the International Finance Corporation both have billions of dollars in funding available for this kind of project, as low-interest loans or a share of equity.

This working paper from the National Scientific Council on the Developing Childexplains how supportive relationships with adults help children develop “resilience,” or the set of skills needed to respond to adversity and thrive. By signing up, you agree to our Privacy Notice and European users agree to the data transfer policy. Starting as a recipient of support from the International Development Association , the Bank Group’s fund for the poorest, China graduated from IDA in 1999 and became a donor in 2007. It became the World Bank’s third largest shareholder upon completion of the capital increase approved in 2010, the 30th anniversary of its partnership. Food and Drug Administration-governed system of best practice for pharmaceutical manufacturing could switch to mRNA production in six months, using the pop-up production kits. Biovac in Cape Town is a part of the W.H.O. project to reverse-engineer an mRNA Covid vaccine.

But climate change and the green transition could create new winners and losers, as some resources, such as battery metals, become sought-after, and others fall out of favour. The Emerging Infectious Diseases Prevention, Preparedness and Response Project, approved in June 2020, supports China in strengthening national and provincial systems to reduce the risk of zoonotic and other emerging health threats. The project introduces a multi-sectoral approach that brings together responses from public health, agriculture and food, as well as the environment and wildlife sectors. China’s rapid economic growth exceeded the pace of institutional development, and there are important institutional and reform gaps that China needs to address to ensure a high-quality and sustainable growth path. The role of the state needs to evolve and focus on providing stable market expectations and a clear and fair business environment, as well as strengthening the regulatory system and the rule of law to further support the market system. Over the past few years, growth has moderated in the face of structural constraints, including declining labor force growth, diminishing returns to investment, and slowing productivity.

Perhaps a more promising approach is to think of countries in terms of their growth models instead. This framework would apply to the familiar big emerging economies, as well as to the edgier, “frontier” markets. Investors who want more exposure to export-oriented powerhouses could turn not just to China, South Korea and Taiwan, but also to later adopters of the model, such as Bangladesh and Vietnam. These are still minnows compared with the incumbents’ market capitalisation of about $16trn.


Anna Khanenko|+44-555-6123-137

Anna Khanenko is a professional cryptocurrency investor, business and mutual fund analyst. In this blog she publishes the most important information from her financial analytics experience.

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